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گفتگوهای اقلیمی - واداشت تابشی

گفتگوهای اقلیمی

Climate Dialogue

پنجشنبه 4 اردیبهشت 1393

واداشت تابشی

نویسنده: ایمان بابائیان Iman Babaeian   طبقه بندی: پرسش و پاسخ، تغییر اقلیم، 

یکی از دوستان اطلاعاتی در مورد واداشت تابشی خواسته اند. لذا توضیح کوتاهی در مورد آن داده می شود. تعریف کلی واداشت تابشی، تفاوت بین انرژی تابشی دریافتی از خورشید و انرژی بازگشتی به جو توسط زمین می باشد. . . . 

واداشت مثبت (ورودی بیشتر انرژی تابشی خورشید) موجب افزایش و واداشت منفی (برون رفت بیشتر انرژی) موجب کاهش دمای سیستم زمین می گردد. واداشت تابشی که می تواند مهمترین علت تغییر اقلیم باشد، برای ارزیابی و مقایسه هر یک از عاملان طبیعی و انسانی تغییر اقلیم مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد و آن هر نوع تاثیرگذاری بر اقلیم با سرچشمه های بیرون از سیستم اقلیم زمین می باشد. سیستم اقلیم زمین در برگیرنده اقیانوس، سطح زمین، یخ سپهر(کریوسفر)، زیست کره(بیوسفر) و جو می باشد. بازتابندگی(آلبیدو)، تغییرات ناشی از عملکرد انسان در مقدار گازهای گلخانه ای، هواویزهای(آئروسل ها) جوی شامل سولفات های آتش فشانی و صنعتی،  شماری از واداشت های بیرونی اقلیم  هستند. موارد یاد شده روی توازن انرژی ورودی و خروجی از سیستم زمین تاثیر می گذارند. مقدار  واداشت تابشی در محدوده بالایی جو (Top Of atmosphere=TOA) یعنی لایه وردایست(تروپوپاز) بر حسب وات بر متر مربع در سطح زمین اندازه گیری می شود. از آغاز دوره انقلاب صنعتی(1750 میلادی)، تاثیر فعالیت های انسانی سبب گرم شدن زمین شده است. نتیجه فعالیت های انسانی در افزایش میزان انتشار چهار گاز گلخانه ای اصلی دی اکسید کربن، متان، اکسید نیتروس و هالوکربن ها(ترکیبات دارای فلوئور، کلر و برم ) دیده می شود. در شکل1، افزایش گازهای یاد شده دیده می شود.

شکل1. غلظت گازهای گلخانه ای تا سال 2005 میلادی

سهم هر یک از واداشت های تابشی ناشی از فعالیت های انسانی نسبت به آغاز انقلاب صنعتی (حدود سال 1750 میلادی) در شکل 2 نشان داده شده است. این شکل نشان می دهد که واداشت تمامی گازهای گلخانه ای افزایش یافته است که به معنی تاثیر فعالیت های انسانی در آن می باشد. همانطور که دیده می شود سهم دی اکسید کربن از سایر گازهای گلخانه ای بیشتر بوده و مقدار ان 1.66 وات بر مترمربع می باشد. پس از آن متان با 0.48، اکسید نیترو با 0.16 وات بر مترمربع می باشد. ازن وردسپهری (تروپوسفر) موجب افزایش دما می شود در حالیکه ازن آرام سپهری (استراتوسفر) موجب سرمایش زمین می گردد. تنها واداشت افزایش ناشی از فعالیت های طبیعی مربوط به تابش ورودی خورشید می باشد که حدود 0.1 وات بر مترمربع می باشد.

شکل2. سهم عوامل مختلف در واداشت تابشی سال 2005 نسبت به سال 1750(آغاز انقلاب صنعتی) بر حسب وات بر متر مربع بر سال

نکته مهمی که در اینجا وجود دارد اینست که واداشت تابشی را می توان از طریق یک رابطه خطی به دمای تعادل میانگین سطح زمین نسبت داد(ΔTs = λRF)؛ که در آن λ ضریب حساسیت اقلیم می باشد. بنابراین با داشتن ضریب حساسیت اقلیمی عوامل مختلف که به نوعی همان واداشت جزئی هر یک از آنها می باشد، می توان میزان افزایش دمای کره زمین را شبیه سازی نمود. مطابق گزارش سازمان اقیانوس شناسی و هواشناسی آمریکا، از سال 1990 تا 2011 سهم واداشت تابشی ناشی از گازهای گلخانه ای با طول عمر بالا(Long Live Green House Gasses=LLGHGs) حدود 80 درصد افزایش یافته است که 30 درصد آن مربوط به دی اکسید کربن می باشد.

منابع:

-       IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007, Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis.

-       http://ossfoundation.us/projects/environment/global-warming/radiative-climate-forcing

-       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiative_forcing

-       http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/research/themes/forcing/

 

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پنجشنبه 6 تیر 1398 08:21 ب.ظ
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‘Why Andrew? You're so handsome. I'd never reject you ', I only say
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‘Oh, I would not know. Everything happens for good reason right.
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‘No, how could I?' , I replied

"So, can you mind if I kissed you at this time?' he was quoted saying as I receive much better him and kiss him.

‘The next occasion don't ask, function it.' I reply.

‘I favor the way you think.' , he said.

While waiting, I start scrubbing my rearfoot as part of his leg, massaging it slowly. ‘Precisely what do you enjoy in females? And, Andrew, don't spare me the details.' I ask.

‘I adore determined women. Someone who knows what they want. A person that won't say yes just because I said yes. Someone who's not afraid when trying a new challenge,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid when you attempt a new challenge, especially with regards to making a new challenge in the sack ', I intimate ‘And I really like women that are direct, who cut in the chase, like you simply did. To get
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"Permit the finale begin," he explained, and he slid the top of
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for a moment. I contracted my pussy to drag him further inside, and he threw his return on the sensation. Inch by excruciating inch he pushed
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We're having coffee at Nylon Coffee Roasters on Everton Park in Singapore.
I'm having black coffee, he's having a cappuccino.
He is handsome. Brown hair slicked back, glasses
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we're in search of on another person. He starts
telling me that he's been rejected loads of times.


‘Why Andrew? You're so handsome. I'd never reject you
', I have faith that He smiles at me, biting his lip.

‘Oh, I don't know. Everything happens for a good reason right.
But tell me, can you reject me, do you Ana?' He said.


‘No, how could I?' , I replied

"So, you wouldn't mind if I kissed you currently?' he was quoted saying as I receive closer to him and kiss him.

‘The next occasion don't ask, simply do it.' I reply.

‘I'm keen on how we think.' , he said.

Meanwhile, I start scrubbing my rearfoot in his leg, massaging it slowly. ‘So what can you want ladies? And, Andrew, don't spare me the details.' I ask.

‘I like determined women. Someone you never know the things they want. Somebody who won't say yes simply because I said yes. Someone who's unafraid when attemping interesting things,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid when trying new things, especially in relation to making interesting things in the bedroom ', I intimate ‘And I love girls that are direct, who cut in the chase, like you simply did. To become
honest, this is a huge turn on.'
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